14 Medicinal Trees with Profound Healing Properties (2024)

We value trees on our homesteads for the food, shade, and firewood they provide, but did you know that many of them also have startling healing properties? In this article, we’ll look at medicinal trees that may be growing on your land and their medicinal properties.

Trees have been a source of natural medicine for humans and animals for tens of thousands of years. It’s possible that people learned a lot about medicinal plants by observing animals using them!

Here are 14 of the most common medicinal trees and shrubs with healing properties. You might already have some of them growing on your homestead. If you don’t, consider planting them.

1. Willow (Salix spp.)

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Before people had aspirin, they had willow bark. The cambium of willow trees contains salicin, which our bodies convert into salicylic acid—the active analgesic component found in various over-the-counter NSAIDs.

As such, this tree’s bark and twigs can alleviate1 all kinds of physical discomfort ranging from back pain2 and headaches to menstrual cramps.

Pain relief is one of the most important medications to have on the homestead. If you’re aiming to be as self-sufficient as possible, having medicinal trees and other plants around that can alleviate pain is absolutely invaluable.

As a result, of all the trees with healing properties that we have on this list, willow ranks in the top five “must-haves.” Learn how to grow them in our guide.

2. Cherry (Prunus avium, P. serotina, P. virginiana)

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Those of us who love fruit tend to be delighted if we have cherry trees growing on the property — either indigenously or because we’re cultivating them. Fortunately, these have immense healing properties in addition to providing delicious fruits.

Various parts of cherry trees (including fruits, bark, leaves, and flowers) contain significant anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, as one study in the journal Antibiotics showed3.

As such, cherry bark, syrup, and extract treat respiratory infections, especially those associated with dry, wracking coughs. Cherry has antispasmodic and respiratory relaxant effects and is cooling for respiratory conditions that make us feel like our lungs are on fire.

Cherry leaves, stems, and flowers are effective against gram-positive bacteria4, such as strep, and can also treat urinary tract infections (UTIs). Syrup or tea made from the bark is also helpful for treating insomnia, hot flashes, and heat-induced anxiety.

3. Peach (Prunus persica)

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If you grow peaches for their truly luscious fruits, you’ll be delighted to find out that your beloved trees also have startling healing properties.

The earliest references we have to peach medicine include the Shennong Bencaojing writings of traditional Chinese medicine from 200 BCE (神農本草經), and writings on Arabic medicine by Ibn Sīnā (ابن سينا), aka “Avicenna,” written between 980 and 1037 CE.

These ancient writings touched upon peach’s efficacy at treating diarrhea and dysentery, as well as nausea, vomiting, and heat-related inflammation.

In fact, peach is excellent for most heat-related ailments, including nausea from heatstroke, menopausal hot flashes, and hot inflammations from insect bites and stings. Peach is most commonly used as a tincture created from its bark, twigs, leaves, and flowers.

This tincture can be taken internally and used topically to treat the aforementioned inflammatory issues.

As an added bonus, peach fruits and peels also have noted anti-inflammatory effects5. The fruits are best eaten fresh for this purpose, though the peels can be applied to hot, inflamed skin as a poultice.

4. Black Elder (Sambucus nigra)

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Have you ever been given elderberry syrup to treat a cold or flu? If so, it probably did you more good than you realize.

Elderberries have potent antibacterial, antiviral6, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory healing properties, as well as significant amounts of vitamins A and C. Syrup or tincture made from the berries has proven to be effective7 at treating several respiratory illnesses (including Covid-19)8.

During the pandemic, it showed the ability to alleviate symptoms and reduce the duration of the disease, according to a study in the journal Nutrients by researchers at Griffith University, Gold Coast campus, Queensland, Australia.

Elder is truly a wonderful tree to have on the homestead, and if you don’t already have a few on yours, make sure to add some this spring! You’ll need to plant at least two for cross-pollination, but the more the merrier.

5. Alder (Alnus spp.)

Gorgeous, riverbank-loving alder trees have noted antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, astringent, and antioxidant effects. If you’re dealing with a suppurating wound or weeping blisters, alder is one of your best allies.

It’s also great for treating sore throats and inflamed, bleeding gums. Furthermore, certain alder species have proven to have significant wound-healing abilities, particularly Nepalese alder (Alnus nepalensis)9.

These abilities have been noted in various other alder species, including the common North American red alder (Alnus rubra).

Alder’s anti-inflammatory qualities make it a great treatment for chronic inflammation, especially lymphedema. Some practitioners use it for lymphatic drainage, often as an alternative to cleavers (Galium aperine) if those plants aren’t readily available.

The most common way to use alder medicine is with a tincture made of the twigs, cones, and catkins.

People who are allergic to birch trees (Betula spp.) are likely to also react badly to alders, as these are close cousins.

6. Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.)

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Hawthorn trees aren’t just beautiful, magical species to have around the homestead: they’re packed with wonderful healing properties. In fact, hawthorn bark, leaves, and berries have been used to treat cardiac disease for thousands of years, to good effect10.

This lovely tree has been proven to lower blood pressure, alleviate congestive heart failure (CHF) symptoms, and improve overall heart function11.

Hawthorn’s proanthocyanidins, triterpenoids, and flavonoids are powerful anti-inflammatories and antioxidants, and also have cardiovascular protective effects.

CAUTION: hawthorn has blood-thinning effects12, and thus shouldn’t be used by hemophiliacs or those already on prescription anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs.

7. Poplar (Populus spp.) aka Aspen or Cottonwood

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Poplars are so numerous all around North America that it’s unusual to see a homestead without at least a few of them around. Their buds and twigs have noted anti-inflammatory13 and analgesic effects and are used both internally and externally to good effect.

A topical salve made from the buds and twigs is excellent for rheumatoid and osteoarthritis and alleviates the pain from musculoskeletal injuries.

Additionally, studies show that poplar used in combination with ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea) is an effective alternative for NSAIDs14.

First Nations peoples of North America used poplar bud infusions to treat sore throats and toothaches, and in parts of Asia — namely Mongolia and China — poplar buds are still used to treat these issues and gastric ulcers to good effect15.

As far as trees with healing properties go, you can’t go wrong with having some cottonwood poplars around!

8. Honey Locust (Gleditsia triacanthos)

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Honey locust trees grow throughout North America and are welcome additions to the homestead. If these grow on your property, you may have cracked open the young pods to gnaw on the sweet pulp contained within.

Early settlers used this pulp in lieu of honey, sugar, or molasses to sweeten foods, or even just to eat as a treat, not realizing that these tasty snackos also have numerous healing properties.

This tree’s leaves and twigs contain an alkaloid called stenocarpine. As such, these leaves can be used as a fairly effective topical local anesthetic or analgesic16.

Some people process the leaves into a poultice for topical applications, while others use a tincture compress or salve to alleviate the pain and inflammation from arthritis, bursitis, tendonitis, sprains, bumps, and bruises.

Be careful when consuming honey locust pods or seeds, as they can cause severe gastrointestinal upset.

9. Olive (Olea europaea)

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If you’re in USDA Growing Zones 8-10, then you may be lucky enough to have olive trees on your property — either as indigenous species (if you’re in the Mediterranean or Levant region) or planted intentionally.

We had these growing in our Zone 9 garden in California, and they’re an absolute treasure to cultivate.

In terms of healing properties, olive leaves are anti-inflammatory and antiviral, and olive leaf extract has been proven effective at treating several different health issues.

Primarily, it’s used to treat shingles, as one of the bioactive compounds in olive leaves is oleuropein. This compound inhibits the replication of the varicella-zoster (aka shingles) virus17.

Olive leaf extract has also proven effective18 in treating herpes simplex virus type 1, reducing symptoms and faster healing during outbreaks. Its antifungal and antimicrobial properties have also proven effective at treating candida19, including yeast infections20, athlete’s foot, and oral thrush21.

10. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.)

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If you’re lucky enough to live in a place where eucalyptus trees grow well, then you’re fortunate indeed.

Eucalyptus oil (derived from its leaves) has noted antimicrobial, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-stimulating effects, making its healing properties invaluable for treating many different health concerns.

It’s been proven effective at treating asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially when used as a steam inhale22.

That said, eucalyptus is also excellent when used in a chest salve to help alleviate congestion and coughs. Since this tree also has antibacterial, antimicrobial, and antifungal properties, its oil can also be used as an effective disinfectant for minor cuts and abrasions, as well as to disinfect surfaces.

11. Creosote Bush (Larrea sp.)

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This shrub/small tree grows throughout the southwestern US and can be found in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and southern California.

Its leaves and twigs have long been used medicinally by local indigenous peoples to treat numerous conditions, including insect bites and stings, wounds, and infections.

Analysis of this shrub has shown that its aerial parts contain antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial23, antiprotozoal, antioxidant, anthelmintic (aka vermifugal: expels parasites from the body), and anticancer activities24.

Renowned herbalist Kiva Rose lauds Larrea as invaluable for treating painful wounds that are at risk of infection and has observed accelerated healing with minimal scarring after using Larrea salve as a first-aid treatment.

12. Cedar (Cedrus spp.)

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Cedar leaves release a gorgeous scent when pressed or crushed, and have an aromatherapeutic effect that’s soothing and invigorating at turns.

These leaves (which the deer in my area consider to be delicacies) have numerous healing properties. In particular, they’re highly antimicrobial, containing cedrol, thujopsene, and atlantin25.

The oil extracted from these leaves has been proven effective as an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal treatment, and is used both for treating wounds and skin issues and for disinfecting surfaces such as countertops, door handles, etc.

This tree’s berries are packed with vitamin C and have been traditionally used by indigenous peoples to prevent scurvy in wintertime.

Leaves were used as tea, or steam inhaled by indigenous peoples to treat chest complaints such as bronchitis and pneumonia, and some used cedar smoke as a smudge to cleanse the air in their homes. Additionally, people use bits of cedar wood infused with the oil to deter moths and mice from closets and pantries.

CAUTION: Cedar leaves and berries are highly diuretic and can be irritating or even damaging to one’s kidneys if taken in high doses or too often. As such, people with a history of kidney issues may wish to avoid taking cedar internally.

Don’t confuse true cedars (Cedrus spp.) with the trees that are often called cedars, but aren’t part f the genus, such as western red cedars (Thuja plicata).

13. Pine (Pinus spp.)

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I can’t tell you how many times I’ve been working outside and got cut or scraped on something or gotten a splinter while chopping or stacking wood. In situations like this, I head over to one of our white pine trees (Pinus alba) and find a bit of resin.

Pine trees have several different healing properties and can, as such, be used in various ways. The needles have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities and are decocted into a tea to alleviate coughs, cold symptoms, and fevers26.

The decocted bark is used as a wash or poultice for pain caused by muscular or soft tissue injuries.

Pine resin can be transformed into a salve, tincture, oil, or vinegar, and used to treat several different health concerns.

It has noted disinfectant and anti-inflammatory properties, and its sticky nature helps draw out splinters, bee stingers, nettle or caterpillar hairs, and even small glass or metal shards. I add pine to my winter chest salve to alleviate lingering coughs, and a topical drawing salve to help pull toxins out of insect bites or stubborn wounds27.

CAUTION: It’s important to remember that not all pine species are medicinal or consumable. In fact, there are a few that have the potential to cause serious damage if you consume any portion of them, such as Ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) and Jack pine (P. banksiana).

14. Spruce (Picea spp.)

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My first encounter with spruce as medicine was when my 7th-grade class had a weekend outing at a survival lodge. It was late March, and our Ojibwe instructor brewed up a huge cauldron of spruce tip tea with maple syrup added to it, which we sipped with great relish.

It tasted lemony and coniferous and was both warming and refreshing. Not only was this delicious, I think it helped us from getting ill from being in close quarters in late wintertime!

Spruce is packed with antifungal, antimicrobial, and antiseptic properties, and the young tips are high in vitamins A and C. The extracts of certain spruce species, particularly Norway spruce (Picea abies), have proven to be effective against antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus in studies28.

Additionally, Norway spruce resin is proving to be an incredibly promising treatment for severe, pharma-resistant bacterial infections29.

A Word of Caution About Medicinal Trees

As you can see, some of the trees you’ve grown accustomed to seeing around the homestead may have more healing properties than you realized. Get to know these lovely plant allies, nurture them, and harvest responsibly to stock your home apothecary cabinet.

But remember, never take any herbal remedies without consulting with your healthcare team, including herbalists or naturopaths.

There may be several reasons why various herbal medicines may not suit you, like allergies or contraindications with medications you’re currently on.

This article is solely for informational purposes, so please ensure that you do proper research before using any kind of plant medicine for yourself or your family members.


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